Network and Internet


Network and Internet


Network Topology

A network consists of multiple computers connected using some type of interface, each having one or more interface devices such as a Network Interface Card (NIC) and / or a serial device for PPP networking . Each computer is supported by network software that provides the server or client functionality . The hardware used to transmit data across the network is called the media . It may include copper cable , fiber optic, or wireless transmission . The standard cabling used for the purposes of this document is 10Base-T category 5 ethernet cable. This is twisted copper cabling which appears at the surface to look similar to TV coaxial cable . It is terminated on each end by a connector that looks much like a phone connector . Its maximum Segment length is 100 meters.


Network categories

There are two main types of network categories which are :

Server based

Peer – to – peer

In a server based network, there are computers set up to be primary providers of services such as file service or mail service . The computers providing the service are called servers and the computers that request and use the service are called client computers.

In a peer-to-peer network, various computers on the network can act both as clients and servers. For instance , many Microsoft Windows based computers will allow file and print sharing . These computers can act both as a client and a server and are also referred to as peers . Many networks are combination peer-to-peer and server based networks.  The network operating system uses a network data protocol to communicate on the network to other computers. The network operating system supports the applications on that computer. A Network Operating System (NOS) includes windows NT. Novell Netware, Linux, Unix and others.


There Network Topologies

The network topology describes the method used to do the physical wiring of the network. The main ones are bus, star, and ring.

1-    Bus – Both ends of the network must be terminated with a terminator . A barrel connector can be used to extend it .

2-    Star – All devices revolve around a central hub, which is what controls the network communications , and can communicate with other hubs . Range limits are about 100 meters from the hub.

3-    Ring – Devices are connected from one to another , as in a ring . A data token is used to grant permission for each computer to communicate.


There are also hybrid networks including a star-bus hybrid , star-ring network, and mesh networks with connections between various computers on the network . Mesh networks ideally allow each computer to have a direct connection to each of the other computers.




?Where Does the Internet Come From

The Internet as we know it today is not the product of a long or sustained effort by any single research team. Rather, it is the amalgamation of the efforts from some very bright people working independently of each other.


?Who Can Access the Internet

Anybody can access the Internet. Schools provide access, as do some churches and employers. You’ll even find public access to the Internet in libraries and coffee shops. Of course, if you have a computer and a modem , you can establish a private account with an independent service provider or commercial online service .



?What Resources Are Available on the Internet

When someone asks you what the Internet is , what do you tell them? Do you talk about Web pages and interactive content? How about online shopping and services . If you do, you’re describing the World Wide Web to them, not the Internet. There’s much more to it like internet mail and FTP.


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